Importance of Ecosystem


Organisms can’t thrive in isolation in nature. It lives in a particular environment that supplies energy and necessary materials to it. It needs a place in nature, where living organisms interact amongst themselves and with their physical environment. An ecosystem consists of all the abiotic factors, with which they interact. The term ecosystem was first coined by A.G. Tansley in 1935. According to him, an ecosystem is a natural functional unit of ecology comprising living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable system.

Definition of Ecosystem:

Ecosystem may be defined as a functional unit of ecology, which deals with the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components of the environment.

Some Importance of Ecosystem:

1. Biomass: The sum total organisms of a specific geographical region is called biomass or standing crop.

2. Autecology: The study of an individual species and its interactions with the environment is called autecology.

3. Synecology: The study of an individual organism or living community and its inter-relationship with the environment is called synecology.

4. Biome: The specific biotic communities influenced by specific climates are called biome.

5. Flora and Fauna: The plant community of an ecosystem is called flora and the animal community of an ecosystem is known as fauna.

6. Plankton, Nekton, and Benthos: The microorganisms which float passively in water are called plankton. The free-floating microscopic plants and solitary or colonial algae are called phytoplankton. Aquatic animals which can swim freely in water are called nekton. The aquatic animals which lives at the bottom or bed of the aquatic environment are called benthos.

7. Ecological Niche: The taxonomic position of an organism in an ecosystem according to its function is called ecological niche.