Natural and Artificial Vegetative Propagation

Vegetative Propagation:

Vegetative Propagation is the process of multiplication in which a portion or fragment of the plant body functions as a propagule and develops into a new individual. It is a form of asexual reproduction in plants. Among the flowering plants, a number of herbaceous and perennial plants propagate vegetatively in nature.

Root, stem, leaves, and buds are the common structure that takes part in vegetative propagation and develops into a completely new plant. The methods of vegetative propagation are grouped into two different methods:

  • Natural Vegetative Propagation
  • Artificial Vegetative Propagation

Natural Vegetative Propagation:

In this method, vegetative propagules detach from the mother plant and develop into new plants under suitable conditions. This type of reproduction involves roots, stems,s or leaves. It takes place by the following methods –

1. Propagation by adventitious bud: The adventitious buds are the subnormal buds found at the points along the stem. They arise from the dormant buds in the leaf axils of the young stem and persist for an indefinite number of years within the cortical-cambial zone.

2. Propagation by roots: The tao roots of Albizia, Murraya, etc. The adventitious roots of Asparagus, Dahlia, sweet potato, etc. It serves to propagate plants vegetatively. Adventitious buds developed from both tap roots and adventitious roots are planted in the soil, to give rise to new plants.

Artificial Vegetative Propagation:

These are man-made techniques developed for propagation of desired varieties of plants. The various techniques are cutting, layering, grafting, micropropagation, etc.

1. Cuttings: Cuttings are cut pieces of roots, stems, and leaves which when placed in the soil can sprout to form new plants.

2. Layering: In layering, the development of an adventitious root is induced on the stem before it is separated from the parent plant. It is done in plants like lemon, rose, strawberry, grape vine, etc.

3. Grafting: It is a process of attaching a cutting from one plant to the rooted stem of another. The rooted stem on which the graft is made is called stock. The cutting that is attached to the stock is known as a scion. The new composite plant has the root system of the stock and the shoot system, i.e, flowers and fruits of the scion. The success of the grafting mostly depends upon the union of the cambium of scion and stock.