Biomass and Biogas Energy

Biomass Energy:

Biomass is organic matter from plants and animals containing the stored energy of the sun. Wood, manure, and certain types of garbage are examples of biomass fuels. Biomass energy is reusable, dead tree parts, branches, grass clippings, leftover crop residue, wood chips, barks, twigs, and sawdust. It also includes used tires and livestock manure.

Advantages of Biomass:

1. It is sensible to use waste materials.

2. This fuel is very cheap.

3. It reduces dependence on fossil fuels.

Disadvantages of Biomass:

1. Gathering fuel in sufficient quantities is difficult.

2. It is not available all year round.

3. Emission of greenhouse gases.

Biogas Energy:

Biogas is a biofuel and refers to the mix of hydrogen and methane as a result of bacterial decomposition. The waste is digested in anaerobic conditions by bacteria, a process called ‘fermentation’ at about 35-40°C. Some farmers may carry on the process in large tanks called ‘digesters‘ and may cover their manure ponds to capture biogas. It can be utilized to generate electricity or heat.

According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, India has the capacity to meet 10% of its energy requirements by shifting to biogas technology, which amounts to around 17000 MW. Nearly 4.30 million biogas units of domestic scale have been installed in 2012, although the prospective capacity was anticipated to reach 12 million. The state of Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh are among the leading producers in India.

Advantages of Biogas:

1. It is sensible to use waste materials.

2. methane is a GHG that can be used for electricity.

3. This fuel is very cheap.

4. Low dependence on fossil fuels.

5. Some industry sectors like leather, paper and pulp, sugar, poultry industry, breweries, etc. generating a lot of organic waste, can meet their power demand from their own waste.

Disadvantages of Biogas:

1. Upon combustion it emits greenhouse gases.

2. Unstable and hazardous