Different Types of Water Pollution

Types of Water Pollution:

There are different perspectives of considering pollution.

1. Based on water bodies –

    Surface water pollution – The most evident type of water pollution affects surface waters like huge oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams. For example, an oil slick from an oil tanker can affect a huge area of the marine region.

    Ground water pollution – All of Earths water is not surface water. An immense amount of water is present in underground rock structures or aquifers that are not visible to one and people hardly ever think of. Water that is stored underground in aquifers is the groundwater. The rivers and streams are not only nourished by aquifers but they also supply drinking water. Fertilizers applied in the fields often seep into the soil and contaminate the waters. Groundwater pollution though less evident than surface water pollution is also a mounting problem.

2. Based on the source –

    Point source – If pollutants are discharged from one place or spot, for e.g., an effluent pipe of a plant, oil spillage from a tanker, smoke stack discharge, etc. the pollution from such a source is known as point source pollution.

    Non-point source – A prodigious amount of water pollution also happens from a variety of speckled sources. This is called non-point source pollution.

When point source contamination makes entry into the environment, the most affected place is usually the area adjoining the source. When an oil tanker has an accident the oil slick is mostly concentrated around the tanker itself and the pollution spreads further away from the spot. This is unusual with non-point source pollution where the pollutants gain entry into the environment from various places at a time.

3. Based on chemical composition –

    Soft Water – This water with little or no dissolved salts of magnesium and calcium.

    Hard Water – In contrast to soft water, hard water has high mineral content. It primarily consists of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonate and sulfates. Such water is unsuitable for use.

    Trans-Boundary Pollution – Sometimes the pollution may enter the environment from one place and exert an outcome hundreds or even thousands of miles away from that place. Such pollution is known as Trans-Boundary Pollution.